Welcome to the FOCAL archive

The Canadian Foundation for the Americas (FOCAL) is no longer in operation. This website documents FOCAL's activities and accomplishments throughout its existence. Thank you for your interest in the work of FOCAL.

December 2009, Focus on Gender
Vol. 8, No. 9

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Note from the Editors - Living Up to Reproductive Health Commitments
Madeleine Bélanger Dumontier and Kate McInturff

Americas Need Canadian Commitment to Sexual and Reproductive Health
Carmen Barroso

Mexican Pro-Choice Groups Fight Pro-Life Reforms
Émilie Béland

Des groupes pro-choix combattent les réformes pro-vie au Mexique
Émilie Béland

Fighting the Rise of HIV-AIDS Among Haitian Women
Anne Marie Mercie Thimothé Robert

Contrer la féminisation du VIH/SIDA en Haïti
Anne Marie Mercie Thimothé Robert

Bolivia: Education to Improve Reproductive Health in Indigenous Communities
Erika Silva de la Vega

Bolivia: Educación para mejorar la salud reproductiva en comunidades indígenas
Erika Silva de la Vega

Challenging the Polarized Abortion Debate in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Nicaragua
Claudia Dides

Cuestionando la polarización sobre el aborto en Brasil, Chile, México y Nicaragua
Claudia Dides

Sexual and Reproductive Rights Promotion in Guatemala
Christine Butt


November 2009
Vol. 8, No. 8

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Note from the Editor - The Political Divide in Uruguay, Bolivia and Honduras
Madeleine Bélanger Dumontier

Anti-Union Violence Drops in Colombia
Daniel Mejía

Disminución de la violencia antisindical en Colombia
Daniel Mejía

Fighting Impunity in Guatemala: What is the International Commission’s Role?
Marc-André Anzueto

Contrer l’impunité au Guatemala : Quel rôle pour la Commission internationale?
Marc-André Anzueto

From Colombia: Ideas to Save the Summit of the Americas
Lesley Burns

Desde Colombia: ideas para salvar la Cumbre de las Américas
Lesley Burns

Environment Key to Rebuild Haiti
Amiel Blajchman

Toward a Bolivian National Policy for Child Friendly Municipalities
Claudio Santibáñez


October 2009, Focus on Health
Vol. 8, No. 7

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Note from the Guest Editor - Reviewing Health Reform in the Americas
Ronald Rojas

Colombian Indigenous Health Promoting Enterprises: A Power Shift?
Javier Mignone

Public Health Insurance in Bolivia and Gaps Between Rural and Urban Areas
Rory Narváez

El Aseguramiento Público en Salud en Bolivia y las Brechas Urbano Rurales
Rory Narváez

The Persistence of Health Inequities in Colombia
Francisco J. Yepes

Capacity Development for Health Research
Victor R. Neufeld

How Scientific Evidence Can Inform Health Policy and Decision-making in the Americas
Nathan Mendes Souza

Improving Health from Cradle to Grave in Canada and Latin America
Claire de Oliveira


September 2009
Vol. 8, No. 6

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Note from the Editor - Welcome Back, Multilateralism
Peter Moore

Canadian Foreign Policy and the Coming Elections
Carlo Dade

La Política Exterior Canadiense y las Próximas Elecciones
Carlo Dade

Haiti Strives to Tackle its Democratic Shortfalls
James R. Morrell

Haïti tente de s'attaquer à ses insuffisances démocratique
James R. Morrell

The Obama Challenge: Multilateralism in the Americas
Thomas Legler and Anabel López

Colombia-U.S. Military Cooperation Agreement Attracts UNASUR Attention
Freddy Osorio-Ramirez

Cuba’s Bloggers: Is Cuba Relaxing Restrictions on Freedom of Expression?
Archibald Ritter

Think Tank Initiative to Boost Canada-Mexico Relationship
Olga Abizaid


June-July 2009, Focus on Bolivia
Vol. 8, No. 5

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Note from the Guest Editor - Bolivia Must Discuss Economic Policies to Generate Social Benefits and Development
Ronald Rojas

The Impact of the International Crisis on Bolivia
Rubén Ferrufino

Natural Gas and Poverty in Bolivia
Mauricio Medinaceli Monrroy

Gas Natural y Pobreza en Bolivia
Mauricio Medinaceli Monrroy

We Want Partners, Not Bosses: Returning Oil, Gas to State Control
Susan Spronk

Bolivia’s Teachers, Quality of Education and the New Constitution
Maria C. Mejia

Maestros de Bolivia: La Calidad de la Educación y la Nueva Constitución
Maria C. Mejia

Indigenous Universities: A New Vision of Higher Education in a Plurinational State
Diego Pary Rodríguez

Universidades Indígenas: Una Nueva Visión de Educación Superior en un Estado Plurinacional
Diego Pary Rodríguez

Social Public Policy in Bolivia: Are Demand-side Interventions Enough?
Ernesto Pérez de Rada

Políticas Públicas Sociales en Bolivia: ¿Es Suficiente con Intervenciones de Incentivo a la Demanda?
Ernesto Pérez de Rada

Boom or a Boomerang: Social Policy in Bolivia
Natasha Morales Escoffier


May 2009
Vol. 8, No. 4 

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Note from the Editor - Summit Must Be Relevant, Open, Responsive
Peter Moore

Caribbean Faces Economic Challenges After the Fifth Summit of the Americas
José Raúl Perales

Information, Participation, Implementation: Three Concepts Missing from the Fifth Summit
Andrea Sanhueza

Información, Participación e Implementación: Tres Conceptos Ausentes de la Quinta Cumbre
Andrea Sanhueza

Uncertainty and Scarce Results at Fifth Summit
Francine Jacomé

Una Cumbre de Incertidumbre y Escasos Resultados
Francine Jacomé

Private Sector Looking for Summit Follow-Up
Debbie Mohammed

¡Hola Canadá! Spanish Is Third Most Spoken Language
Jack Jedwab and Victor Armony

The PRI and Mexico’s July 5 Mid-Term Congress and Senate Elections
Joy Langston

Canadian Innovation Boosts Lawyer Competency
Hugh A. Robertson, Q.C.


April 2009, Special Edition on Domestic Labour Mobility
Vol. 8

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Note from the Guest Editor - Excluded Workers, Excluded Women: Challenging the Marginality of Domestic Work in Latin America
Barbara MacLaren

Feminization of Migration in Latin America: Domestic Workers
Irma Arriagada

Feminización de la Migración en América Latina
Irma Arriagada

Women from Latin America and the Caribbean Cross Borders to Work in the Domestic Sector
Gloria Moreno-Fontes Chammartin

Latinoamericanas y Caribeñas Atravesando Fronteras para Trabajar en el Sector Doméstico
Gloria Moreno-Fontes Chammartin

‘Exporting’ Human Capital Has Unexpected Costs for the Philippines
Ashifa Kassam

The Case of Domestic Workers in Costa Rica
Berta Fernández Alfaro and Rosita Acosta

El Caso de las Trabajadoras Domésticas en Costa Rica
Berta Fernández Alfaro and Rosita Acosta

Toward a New Understanding of Labour and Domestic Service
Marcelina Bautista

Hacia una Nueva Concepción del Trabajo y del Servicio Doméstico
Marcelina Bautista

Chile: Labour Insertion Opens Doors to Citizenship
P. Algacir Munhak

Inserción Laboral para Abrir las Puertas a la Ciudadanía: El Caso de Santiago de Chile
P. Algacir Munhak


April 2009
Vol. 8, No. 3

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Note from the Editor - We Need Data to Make the Invisible Visible
Peter Moore

PAN Mid-term Election Loss Could Cripple Calderón
Pamela Starr

Alternation or Alternative in El Salvador?
Celia Medrano

¿Alternancia o Alternativa en El Salvador?
Celia Medrano

Ethnic/Racial Variables Matter in Census Systems
Marcelo Paixão

A Importância da Variável Étnico-Racial nos Sistemas Censitários
Marcelo Paixão

Data Collection and Health Research on Indigenous People in Latin America
Eduardo Vides and Kim Bulger

Refugee Claims Based on Sexual Orientation Discrimination
Sulaimon Giwa


March 2009
Vol. 8, No. 2

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Note from the Guest Editor — Haiti Needs Jobs To Be Sustainable
Carlo Dade

Haiti’s Economic Prospects ‘Hopeful’
Carlo Dade interviews Paul Collier

Read the Paul Collier Report, Haiti: From Natural Catastrophe to Economic Security.

Paul Collier’s Report on Economic Security in Haiti
Robert Maguire

Le Rapport de Paul Collier sur la sécurité économique en Haïti
Robert Maguire

Ignoring rural Haiti is a recipe for failure
Yasmine Shamsie

On court à l’échec si le monde rural en Haïti est ignoré
Yasmine Shamsie

Reforming the Haitian National Police
Timothy Donais

Haitians Building Democratic Culture
Nicholas Galletti and Lauren Ravon


February 2009
Vol. 8, No. 1

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Note from the Editor - How Will Obama Transform the Americas?
Peter Moore

Obama’s Americas Policy Could Bring Opportunity for Canada
Anatol von Hahn

Obama’s engagement promise to the Americas
Carlo Dade

Can Obama End the "Cuba Wars"?
Daniel P. Erikson

Should Obama and Harper Talk About the Americas?
John Graham

Common Partners, Common Interests: Why We Must Develop a Social Agenda for Latin America
Barry S. Featherman, Esq.

Plummeting Oil Prices and Indefinite Re-Election Referendum Put Pressure on Venezuelan Democracy
Lesley Burns


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